In his series, Tattooed Women, Bruce Adams references historical portrait and genre paintings to create a series of extensively tattooed female models, most of whom do not adhere to the conventional standards of female beauty. When he began this series, before the practice of body adornment gained the broad acceptance it enjoys today, these women were pioneers of female tattooing.  They were subject to social ostracism and formed a distinct subculture.  These women forthrightly control their appearance and confront traditional ideals of beauty by creating their own canon within their subculture. Adams says, "Placing the figures in the context of portrait and historical painting throws into relief the arbitrary nature of beauty in any given cultural context.  Introducing female subjects whose appearance and implied lifestyles conflict with cultural norms disrupts the conventions of the well-documented 'male gaze.'" See more of Adams' work at his website.